What is the most common type of trash in our oceans? And which ones are the most deadly?
More than 560,000 volunteers in 91 countries spanned over 13,000 miles in the 2014 International Coastal Cleanup. And over 16 million pounds of trash were collected in last year’s Ocean Conservancy’s International Coastal Cleanup program.
The data from the program, dating back 30 years, in addition to a survey of 274 experts, was put into a study that ranked their findings.
The most common types of trash found were cigarette butts, food wrappers, bottles and bottle caps. And some of the deadliest types for marine mammals, turtles and seabirds included fishing gear, plastic bags and utensils, balloons, cigarette butts and bottle caps.
See the report by the numbers with Ocean Conservancy’s infographics:
According to a recent study, seabirds have faced a massive drop in numbers – approximately 70% over the last 60 years.
Seabirds are those that forage primarily at the sea, such as pelicans, gulls, albatross, penguins and more. The study covered half of the 325 species of seabirds that exist and collected data from as far back as the 1950s, with most of the information from the 70s and 80s.
The findings showed that, of the monitored populations that make up 19% of the world’s seabirds, there was a total decline of 70%. That accounts for a loss of around 230 million birds since the 1950s.
But the drop in numbers isn’t that surprising, as seabirds have faced increasing threats for decades. Threats range from food depletion, fishing gear, pollution, non-native predators and climate change.
Seabirds are very important to both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. They are part of a delicate food chain and also enrich the terrestrial ecosystem through fertilization. Their disappearance would be tragic, as well as have a negative impact on the food chain and ecosystems.
“Seabirds are threatened by a suite of different human activities in the world’s oceans. [They] play an important role in how the marine food web works. Removing seabirds from the food web would alter the overall health of the marine and coastal ecosystems.”
How can we help? The public can help by reducing pollution, particularly plastic pollution and fossil fuel consumption. People can also lobby the goverment or vote to support large marine protective areas that provide refuge for seabirds.
The cause is from a combination of plastic overproduction and birds mistaking plastic for fish eggs and other food. Study co-author and senior research scientist at the CSIRO, an Australian federal agency devoted to scientific research, Denise Hardesty says:
“It’s pretty astronomical. In the next 11 years we will make as much plastic as has been made since industrial plastic production began in the 1950s. [Birds] think they’re getting a proper meal but they’re really getting a plastic meal.”
Certain birds are especially prone to eating plastic, including some species of albatross, shearwaters, fulmars, and petrels. The plastic has devastating effects on the birds, with many choking on the various pieces. Others collect plastic bits in their gut, which reduces their ability to absorb nutrients, causing weight loss and eventual death. Still others suffer from toxic chemicals leaking out of the plastic in their stomach.
Interestingly, the biggest problem didn’t occur where there was the most pollution, but where there were the most species: specifically, in the southern hemisphere near Australia and New Zealand.
After reaching the conclusions in this study, the researchers are estimating numbers will increase to 99% of seabirds holding plastic in their guts by 2050. But the research also offered some positive insight into how to seabirds. Lead author of the study and senior research scientist at CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere Chris Wilcox says:
“Another surprise in our research was that seabirds eat plastics in proportion to the rate in which they encounter them. If a seabird is in an area with a lot of plastic, they eat a lot of plastic. That makes the problem a very tractable one.” Identifying where birds feed and where oceanic plastic is, he says, will allow conservationists to “make pretty straightforward predictions about the risk to birds.”